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Репетитор выполнит ваши контрольные работы и задания по английскому языкуПример работы, стоимость выполнения которой составляет 2 тыс.р. за страницу:
Section A (Grammar reference)
THE PASSIVE VOICE (СТРАДАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ)
В английском языке имеются два залога: действительный залог (The Active Voice) и страдательный залог (The Passive Voice).
Формы залога показывают, является ли подлежащее лицом / предметом, совершающим действие, или лицом / предметом, подвергающимся действию.
Когда подлежащее является лицом / предметом, совершающим действие, глагол употребляется в форме действительного залога:
They will sign the contract next week. Они подпишут контракт на следующей неделе.
Когда подлежащее является лицом / предметом, подвергающимся действию со стороны другого лица / предмета, глагол употребляется в форме страдательного залога:
The contract will be signed next week. Контракт будет подписан на следующей неделе.
Времена страдательного залога образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующем времени и формы причастия прошедшего времени (Past Participle) смыслового глагола. Таким образом, при спряжении глагола в страдательном залоге изменяется только глагол to be, а смысловой глагол имеет во всех временах одну и ту же форму - Past Participle.
Present Simple: The contract is signed. Контракт подписан.
Is the contract signed? – Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t.
The contract is not (isn’t) signed.
Past Simple: The contact was signed last week. Контракт подписали (был подписан) на прошлой неделе.
Was the contract signed last week? – Yes, it was. / No, it wasn’t.
The contract was not (wasn’t) signed last week.
Future Simple: The contract will be signed next week. Контракт подпишут (будет подписан)
на следующей неделе.
Will the contract be signed next week? – Yes it will. / No it won’t.
The contract will not (won’t) be signed next week.
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В английском языке в страдательном залоге часто не указывается лицо (предмет), которое производит действие. При необходимости указания данного лица или предмета употребляется предлог by или with. Предлог by употребляется при обозначении действующих лиц, предлог with - для неодушевленных предметов.
The contract was signed by Mr. Brown.
The picture was drawn with a piece of chalk.
Глаголы, которые употребляются с предлогами, в страдательном залоге эти предлоги сохраняют. Например:
The Active Voice The Passive Voice
They speak much about this film. This film is much spoken about.
Об этом фильме много говорят.
They listened to her with great interest. She was listened to with great interest.
Ee слушали с большим интересом.
I. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в нужной форме в Passive Voice (Present, Past, Future Simple Passive)
1. A lot of mail (receive) yesterday.
2. The products of our firm (export) to many countries.
3. The construction of the plant (complete) next year.
4. Electronic equipment (produce) at our plant 6 months ago.
5. A lot of models (modify) every year.
6. The invitations (send) 2 weeks ago.
7. Letters usually (type) by our secretary.
8. The goods (deliver) in four months.
9. The price problem (settle) the day before yesterday.
10. I can’t drive to work today. The car (fix) only on Friday.
11. The managing director always (assist) by executives.
II. Образуйте специальный вопрос в Passive Voice
1. The company was founded in 1993. (When?)
2. The contracts are signed in the conference room. (Where?)
3. The discount was offered to him because he was a regular customer. (Why?)
4. The goods will be delivered next week. (When?)
5. English language is spoken by many people. (What?)
6. The talks will be held on Tuesday (What? When?)
7. The sales department was headed by Mr. Flake a few years ago. (What?)
8. The catalogues were looked through yesterday. (When?)
9. The tests of the machines were carried out at the plant. (Where?)
10. All the terms were discussed because it was a trial order. (Why?)
Section A (Grammar reference)
The Past Perfect Tense (Предпрошедшее время)
Past Perfect образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to have в форме прошедшего времени (had) и Past Participle смыслового глагола.
Past Perfect употребляется для выражения действия, которое закончилось до определенного момента в прошлом.
Этот момент может быть выражен:
• точным указанием времени с предлогом by:
They had finished discussing the terms of delivery only by 7 o’clock yesterday. Вчера они закончили обсуждать условия доставки только к 7 часам.
• другим прошедшим действием:
When we arrived at the airport the plane had already landed. Когда мы приехали в аэропорт, самолет уже приземлился.
I. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в Past Perfect.
1. We returned the contract to the customer because he (not to sign) it.
2. They couldn’t get into the office because the manager (to leave) the keys at home.
3. We (to finish) our work by 6 o’clock.
4. It was difficult to operate this machine because we (not to do) it before.
5. We arrived at work and found that somebody (to break) into the office during the night.
6. Jack realized that he (to make) a serious mistake.
II. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в Past Simple или Past Perfect.
1. After we (to study) the prices we (to sign) the contact.
2. I couldn’t get the job. They (to find) someone else before my resume (to arrive).
3. Before we (to invite) the partners to the factory we (to make) all the necessary arrangements.
4. Before the director (to go) on business the secretary (to reserve) a room in the hotel for him.
5. After I (to go) through the customs I (to receive) my baggage.
6. After we (to see) the new model at the exhibition we (to place) an order.
7. When they (to arrive) at the airport the registration already (to begin).
8. I (to invite) Jane to the party but she couldn’t come because she (to arrange) something else to do.
9. Liz (not to want) to go to the exhibition because she already (to visit) it before.
REPORTED (INDIRECT) SPEECH (КОСВЕННАЯ РЕЧЬ)
Если сказуемое главного предложения выражено глаголом в настоящем времени, то в придаточном дополнительном предложении сказуемое употребляется в требуемом по смыслу времени.
We know he lives in Paris. Мы знаем, что он живет в Париже.
He says he is watching TV. Он говорит, что смотрит телевизор
Kate says she sent the letter yesterday. Катя говорит, что отправила письмо вчера.
Mr. Brown is sure they will sign the contract tomorrow. Мистер Браун уверен, что они подпишут контракт завтра.
Если сказуемое главного предложения выражено глаголом в прошедшем времени, то при переводе прямой речи в косвенную соблюдается правило согласования времен, т.е. сказуемое придаточного дополнительного предложения должно быть употреблено в одном из прошедших времен. При этом происходят следующие изменения:
Direct Speech (Прямая речь) Reported Speech (Косвенная речь)
Present Simple → Past Simple
Present Continuous → Past Continuous
Past Simple → Past Perfect
Present Perfect → Past Perfect
Past Perfect → Past Perfect
Future Simple (Will) → Future in the Past (Would)
Для выражения действия, одновременного с действием главного предложения, в придаточном предложении употребляется Past Simple или Past Continuous:
I was sure that he was busy. Я была уверена, что он занят.
He said he was watching TV. Он сказал, что смотрит телевизор.
Для выражения действия, предшествующего действию главного предложения, в придаточном предложении употребляется Past Perfect:
We knew he had left for Madrid. Мы знали, что он уехал в Мадрид.
Для выражения последующего (будущего) действия, в придаточном предложении употребляется Future in the Past:
I didn’t doubt that my friends would meet me at the station. Я не сомневался, что мои друзья встретят меня на станции.
Употребляемые в прямой речи личные и притяжательные местоимения в косвенной речи заменяются по смыслу (например, we → they , my book → his/her book и т.п.).
Следующим образом также заменяются указательные местоимения, обстоятельства места и времени:
Direct Speech (Прямая речь) Reported Speech (Косвенная речь)
this → that
these → those
here → there
now → then
today → that day
yesterday → the day before
ago → before
last (year) → the previous (year)
in → later
tomorrow → the next day/the following day
the day after tomorrow → two days later
next (year) → the following (year)
Повествовательные предложения при переводе из прямой речи в косвенную вводятся союзом that, который может опускаться:
I hoped (that) they would reduce the price. Я надеялся, что они снизят цену.
Повелительное наклонение в косвенной речи передается инфинитивным оборотом. При передаче просьбы употребляется глагол to ask (просить), а для передачи приказания – to tell (сказать, велеть, приказать).
- Will you show your passport? The clerk asked me to show my passport.
- Don’t close the window, please. Jane asked me not to close the window.
- Don’t be late. They told me not to be late.
I. Передайте предложения в косвенной речи. Повествовательные предложения начинайте с she(he) said…
1. The manager made an appointment with customers yesterday.
2. Turn to the right.
3. He can’t go to this meeting next week
4. Don’t swim too fast.
5. We don’t sell the goods to this company.
6. I have just come back from the business trip.
7. He will buy a new model of computer next month.
8. I have to go now.
9. I’m very busy now.
10. We’ll be in the office on time tomorrow.
111. They are having talks now.
II. Раскройте скобки, поставив глагол в нужной форме.
1. I met Diana last week. She said that she (work) for another company soon.
2. Charlie was sure that having lunch at the restaurant (be) always expensive.
3. Ann said that she (not enjoy) her job very much.
4. Janet claimed that somebody (steal) her car a few weeks ago.
5. She insisted that Dave always (work) very hard.
6. I was looking for the manager but the secretary said that he already (go) home.
Section A (Grammar reference)
COMPLEX OBJECT (СЛОЖНОЕ ДОПОЛНЕНИЕ)
Конструкция Complex Object (сложное дополнение) состоит из существительного или местоимения в объектном падеже (me , you, him, her, us, them) и инфинитива глагола, который выражает действие, производимое данным лицом или предметом.
На русский язык эта конструкция переводится дополнительным предложением.
I. После таких глаголов как want (хотеть), expect (ожидать ) и др., а также выражения would like (love) (хотел бы) инфинитив употребляется с частицей to.
Our partners want us to give them a 7 % discount. Наши партнеры хотят, чтобы мы предоставили им 7 % скидку.
We expected them to arrive at 10. Мы ожидали, что они приедут в 10.
Would you like your son to become an economist? Вы хотели бы, чтобы Ваш сын стал экономистом?
II. Конструкция Complex Object употребляется также после глаголов физического восприятия и ощущения: to see (видеть), to hear (слышать), to feel (чувствовать), to watch (наблюдать), to notice (замечать).
1). Инфинитив после данных глаголов употребляется без частицы to и указывает на факт совершения действия (действие уже закончилось).
I heard somebody cry. Я услышал, что кто-то закричал.
He felt somebody enter the room. Он почувствовал, что кто-то вошел в комнату.
2). Если речь идет о действии в процессе его совершения, вместо инфинитива употребляется Participle I.
She watched the children crossing the street. Она наблюдала, как дети переходят улицу.
I. Закончите предложения, используя правильную форму –V ing или инфинитив без to.
1. I didn’t see anybody (leave) the office.
2. I heard the manager (discuss) the terms.
3. We watched the customers (sign) the contract.
4. Did anybody see the machine (work)?
5. I didn’t hear you (come) in.
6. We saw the representatives of the company (study) the prices.
7. I heard somebody (slam) the door.
8. She felt somebody (touch) her on the shoulder.
Section A (Grammar reference)
GERUND vs. INFINITIVE
Герундий – неличная форма глагола, которая сочетает в себе свойства существительного и глагола. Герундий образуется прибавлением окончания -ing к глаголу и выражает название действия.
В русском языке подобной формы нет. На русский язык герундий переводится инфинитивом, отглагольным существительным или придаточным предложением.
Запомните следующие глаголы и выражения, после которых употребляется герундий :
accuse smb of - обвинять кого-либо (в чем-либо)
apologise for -
be good at -
be interested in-
can’t help -
can’t stand -
congratulate smb on-
feel like -
give up -
go on -
go swimming, etc.-
insist on -
instead of -
it’s worth -
look forward to-
object to -
put off -
thank smb. for - признавать, допускать
извиняться (за что-либо)
быть способным к
интересоваться, быть заинтересованным
быть не в состоянии удержаться от чего-либо (не могу не ….)
не выдерживать, не выносить (терпеть не могу)
получать удовольствие, наслаждаться
хотеть, испытывать желание
заниматься плаванием, и т.п.
вместо; вместо того, чтобы
с нетерпением ждать
иметь что-либо против, возражать
благодарить кого-либо за что-либо
This book is worth reading. Эту книгу стоит прочитать.
Do you mind my smoking here? Вы не возражаете, если я здесь закурю?
Every time I see her I can’t help smiling. Каждый раз, когда я ее вижу, не могу не улыбнуться.
We are looking forward to meeting you in Moscow. C нетерпением ждем встречи с Вами в Москве.
I don’t feel like going to the cinema today. У меня нет желания идти в кино сегодня.
После следующих глаголов употребляется не герундий, а инфинитив:
would like договариваться, устроить
They decided to take part in this project. Они решили принять участие в этом проекте.
Mr. Smith will agree to give us a discount if we increase our order. Мистер Смит согласится дать нам скидку, если мы увеличим заказ.
Обратите внимание на различие в значениях действий, выраженных герундием и инфинитивом после глагола to stop.
Stop + Gerund выражает прекращение действия:
When he saw his parents he stopped smoking. Когда он увидел своих родителей, он перестал курить.
Stop + Infinitive выражает цель действия:
Before entering the building, he stopped to smoke. Прежде, чем войти в здание, он остановился покурить.
I. Поставьте глаголы в правильную форму to V … или V - ing
1. I enjoy (visit) other countries.
2. What do you want (do) on the business trip?
3. Good buy! I hope (see) you soon.
4. I suggest (study) the demand for the goods.
5. Where is the secretary? She promised (be) here on time.
6. I’m not in a hurry. I don’t mind (wait).
7. What have you decided (buy)?
8. The sellers refused (revise) the price.
9. Where is the manager? I need (ask) him something.
10. We started (produce) this model last year.
11. He is arriving in Moscow (sign) the contract.
12. Don’t forget (lock) the office.
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ
Упражнение № 1
Ответьте на вопросы, используя страдательный залог. Употребите слова, данные в скобках.
1. Where are the catalogues usually sent? (to our customers).
2. When was the personnel trained? (6 months ago).
3. When will the retailers be phoned? (next week).
4. When will the prices be reduced? (at the end of the year)
5. When was the matter taken up? (yesterday)
6. What terms were accepted? (FOB terms)
7. Whose engineers are more qualified? (Sony’s)
8. Why wasn’t the 1st lot dispatched in November? (because of weather conditions)
Консультации по программе MBA - economics and math in English
Решение задач по экономике и математике на английском языке с репетитором
|Возможен выезд на дом либо занятия у преподавателя (Марьино, Братеево). |
Разговорный английский язык - репетитор.
Упражнение № 2
Скажите, что действие, выраженное глаголом, стоящим в скобках, произошло раньше
(Past Perfect), чем действие в данном вам предложении (Past Simple) .
Следуйте образцу: … , then called Brown & Co.( She , study quotations )
She had studied quotations , then called Brown & Co.
1. … , then went on business to London . (He, get the instructions )
2. …, then delivered our goods .(We, sign the contract )
3. …, then sent their offer for compressions . ( They , received our enquiry )
4. …, then agreed to give us a 2 % discount .( The sales manager , clarify the terms )
5. …, then made an appointment with Mr Dunn . ( He , come back from the meeting )
6. …, then switched off the computer .( She, reserve the accommodation )
7. …, then they started deliveries .( We, guarantee payment for collection )
8. …, then left the office .( The engineer , check the documents )
9. …, then the customers arrived .( The managers , clarify some business matters )
10. …,then agreed to place a larger order . ( The market manager , study the price list )
Упражнение № 3
Передайте нижеследующие утверждения в косвенной
1. The manager told the secretary , “Phone the subsidiary at once “.
2. The customers asked the Sellers , “ Please, do not delay the goods “.
3. The Buyers insisted ,” We have made all the calculations .”
4. The economists said ,” Your discount is too small for such a big order .”
5. Mr Blake stated ,” This model is easy in operation .”
6. She said ,” I have finished the test , so I am leaving tomorrow .”
7. She said,”The train stops at every station.”
8. The manager said, “I will sign the contract tomorrow.”
Упражнение № 4
Перепишите следующие предложения, употребляя конструкцию «сложное дополнение» (Complex Object ) вместо придаточных дополнительных предложений.
Следуйте образцу: I didn’t expect that she would forget to call the partners. ---I didn’t expect her to forget to call the partners .
1. The Research & Development Department expects that the economists will make calculations as soon as possible .
2. The Director wants that the trainees will do the computer course in May.
3. Did you see that he was looking through enquiries ?
4. The board expects that you will cancel the meeting .
5. We watch how the inspectors are testing the equipment .
6. The secretary noticed that the engineers entered their office on the first floor .
7. The chief manager wanted that his personal assistant would reserve 3 tickets for a non-stop train .
8. Have you seen that he filled the form ?
9. I heard that he mentioned the organization structure of that company .
Упражнение № 5
Откройте скобки, выберите правильную форму глагола (to + Infinitive или Gerund )
1. The partners accused us of ( to break / breaking ) the contract .
2. They are interested in ( placing / to place ) some orders with Sony .
3. His team is very good at ( to sell / selling ) goods .
4. The company apologized for not ( shipping / to ship ) the goods in time .
5. We managed ( to put / putting ) the equipment into operation .
6. Have you enjoyed ( to do / doing ) business with this company ?
7. Her personal assistant refuses ( answering / to answer ) our questions .
8. Mrs White denies ( to give / giving ) them a message .
9. You really need ( to take care / taking care ) of yourself .
10. Did they insist on ( signing / to sign ) the contract immediately ?
Упражнение № 6
Выполните упражнение, выбрав правильный вариант
1. Our partners were pleased as the goods… without any delay.
a) were dispatched b) was dispatched c) will be dispatched
2. The mail … every morning.
a) is delivered b) delivered c) is delivering
3. … she send the order last week? -Yes, the order … last week.
a) is, will be sent b) did, was sent c) was, is sent
4. Their staff … better than ours.
a) to train b) is trained c) training
5. When … they check the equipment ? – It … in an hour .
a) are , was checked b) will, will be checked c) were , is checked
6. Voronin stressed that it … their usual price .
a) is b) were c) was
7. Yesterday we … the calculations by the beginning of the talks .
a) were making b) made c) had made
8. The secretary … the report before the director’s arrival.
a) had prepared b) is preparing c) prepares
9. I didn’t want her … the project .
a) setting up b) was setting up c) to set up
10. She … the mail , then … the customers .
a) sort out , called b) had sorted out , call c) had sorted out, called
11. Mr Petrov heard the inspectors … the tests .
a) discussing b) to discuss c) discussed
12. The management would like the personnel … responsible .
a) to be b) were c) have been
13. We are looking forward to … from you .
a) hear b) heard c) hearing
14. Did the Buyers promise … by a letter of credit ?
a) paying b) to pay c) pay
15. The financial manager stopped… the matter and phoned the supplier.
a) to discuss b) discussing c) discussed
16. The marketing manager told the customers that their new model … a great success.
a) is b) being c) had been
17. … you … the talks by 6 o’ clock yesterday ?
a) had completed b) have completed c) did complete
18. He saw the staff … on their computers .
a) worked b) to work c) working
КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №3
Для успешного выполнения контрольной работы вам необходимо проработать следующие разделы грамматики:
1. Passive Voice
2. Past Perfect.
3. Согласование времен в косвенной речи
4. Complex Object.
Упражнение 1. Раскройте скобки, используя глагол в Passive voice
1. We (invite) to the presentation but we didn’t go.
2. This exhibition is very popular. Every year it (visit) by thousands of people.
3. A new manufacturing plant (build) next year.
4. - Where is the printer? - It (repair) tomorrow.
5. - Shall I send the fax? - No, you needn’t. It (send) two hours ago.
6. Many buildings (damage) in the fire last week.
7. It is a famous company, but in a few years its brand name (forget).
8. This is a bicycle factory. It (build) in 1958.
9. My bag (steal) from my car yesterday.
10. Computers (used) by millions of people every day.
Упражнение II. Выберите правильную форму глагола.
1. We can sign the contract tomorrow. We (have discussed/ had discussed) all the terms.
2. I phoned the office at 5.30, but the secretary (left/ had left) already.
3. We decided to place an order for copiers with Wilson&Co. We (had never bought/ have never bought) any equipment from them before.
4. The production manager said they (modified/ had modified) their machines the previous year.
5. Why (didn’t you go/ hadn’t you gone) to the meeting yesterday? – You see, I (wasn’t finishing/ hadn’t finished) the talks by that time.
6. Mr. Major decided to visit their partners’ manufacturing plant. He (never was/ had never been) there.
7. Before Mr. Johansson went on business to Paris, he (was discussing/ had discussed) some business matters with the Managing Director.
8. The manager (answered/ had answered) all the urgent messages by 5.30 yesterday.
9. We couldn’t give him the job because he (hadn’t worked/ wasn’t working) in marketing before.
10. By the time I entered the hall, the presentation (started/ had started).
Упражнение III. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в Past Simple или Past Perfect.
1. The manager (be) very angry yesterday, because the secretary (forget) to phone Brown&Co.
2. By 6 p.m. yesterday I (make) several appointments with foreign businessmen.
3. I (come) at 7, but they (finish) the work by that time.
4. The customer (see) the new equipment at the plant before he (order) it from us.
5. We (expect) him to be an experienced programmer, as he (work) for Microsoft for 10 years.
6. I (have) a hard day yesterday. By the time you (come) I already (check) all the documents.
7. Last week we (learn) that Carston Ltd (not/ place) an order with us.
8. Mr. Stanley and Ms. Rodriguez (begin) to discuss the terms of delivery only after they (discuss) the price of the goods.
9. Last month we (place) an order with Brown & Co, with whom we never (do) business before.
10. Last week I phoned Mr. Warner to say we already (send) the second lot.
Упражнение IV. Переведите следующие предложения в косвенную речь.
1. They told us: “We are ready to discuss the contract with you.”
2. The secretary explained: “The President left the office two hours ago.”
3. The letter said: “The customer will place a big order with your firm.”
4. He said to me: “I’m afraid, I can’t come to the meeting.”
5. Mr. Jackson asked the secretary: “Give this message to Mr. Dupont, please.”
6. Mary told me: “ I have never been here before.”
7. She asked him: “Don’t forget to bring the books tomorrow”.
8. He said: “I have spoken to the manager.”
Упражнение V. Выберите правильную форму.
1. I’d like the secretary (to do/ do) this job as soon as possible.
2. The Sellers want the Buyers (increase/ to increase) the order if a discount is given.
3. What products do you expect the company (to introduce/ introducing) to the market?
4. We wanted the manager (gave/ to give) us instructions for the future talks.
5. I heard the businessmen (to discuss/ discussing) the price.
6. We want (they/ them) to study the contract carefully.
7. We would like you (to enclose/ enclosing) current price-list with your letter.
8. Mr. Washington is coming tomorrow. We expect (he/ him) to bring new catalogues.
Упражнение VI. Выберите правильную форму глагола.
1. She dislikes (to be told/ being told) how to run the department.
2. We look forward to (establish/ establishing) business relations with your company.
3. She hopes (to go/ going) to our Paris office when it opens next year.
4. The Sellers agreed (to deliver/ delivering) the first lot of goods in September.
5. We are ready (to sign/ signing) the contract if you reduce the price by 3%.
6. They suggested (to discuss/ discussing) the terms of the credit agreement.
7. I phoned Mr. Taylor after (to send/ sending) him an e-mail message.
8. At out last meeting in September we discussed the possibility of (adapting/ to adapt) this system to your company’s requirements.
9. They promised (placing/ to place) some new orders with our company next year.
10. Kerr & Co would like (to modify/ modifying) their old model.
Упражнение VII. Письменно переведите следующий текст.
Mr. Brown is a successful American businessman. He has been in business for about fifteen years. His company produces good equipment. The equipment sells well in his own country. But three years ago he realized he needed more customers. He wanted foreign firms to buy his equipment. He began looking for new customers in foreign markets.
After his company had entered some European markets, Mr. Brown decided to go to Russia to study the possibility to supply his goods to Russian companies.
Mr. Brown believed that one of the best preparations for a trip was reading about the country to which he was going. He learnt a lot about Russian economy, the country’s trade, its main suppliers, etc.
Before leaving for Russia he contacted the commercial representative of his country in Russia to get some information about the market and import duties. He also wondered if there were any changes in Russian business law.
His secretary booked a ticket, accommodation, and made some business appointments for her boss.
УпражнениеVIII. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.
1. Where is Mr. Brown from?
2. Is he an experienced businessman?
3. What does his company produce?
4. When did Mr. Brown realize that he needed new customers?
5. Where did he want to sell his equipment?
6. Why did he decide to go to Russia?
7. What did Mr. Brown read about before his visit to Russia?
8. Who did he contact before the trip?
9. What information did Mr. Brown get from him?
10. How did his secretary help him to get prepared for the trip?
ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЭКЗАМЕНА 3-й семестр
It is impossible to give all the names of the jobs in the world. The list of them often changes. Some typical job titles are: a manager, a secretary, an executive, a research worker. People who do these jobs work in different businesses and for different companies. Some jobs don’t require any special training, e.g. the job of a cleaner; other jobs require a lot of training and a few qualifications, e.g. the job of a lawyer, an accountant or a designer.
People look for jobs which give them much money, career opportunities, job satisfaction. A lot of people change their jobs if the pay is low, or they commute a long way to work, and for some other reasons.
When a company decides to employ new people it often advertises jobs in a newspaper. A few people apply for this job. They send a letter of application and a CV with details of their education and experience. The company then invites candidates for an interview. A good company usually recruits responsible and experienced staff.
There are different ways to work. A lot of people work nine-to-five, some have flexible working hours, a few work in shifts. Many employers and employees find flexible employment very progressive. This is especially good for women with children. Part-time work appeals to students because they are very busy at universities.
Some people make the decision to leave their jobs and start their own businesses.
A few of them start their business at home and then move it out, for example Disney, Amazon.com, Microsoft, Apple. You have the ability to run your business if you are decisive, organized, ready to take risk. But if you have little self-discipline, you do not plan ahead and you are not creative, you are not ready to start your own business.
In any case, you are successful in a job of an employee or in your own business if you enjoy your work.
Boris Baker is an engineer in electronics. He works for the Browns’ company. They design and manufacture electronic equipment. Boris is responsible for its technical supervision. He is always very busy. He’s got a lot of work to do every day. He comes to work in the morning and stays there practically all day long. He is satisfied with his job but he dislikes the fact that he works long hours. Very often he stays at work till nine o’clock in the evening. Another bad thing is that his holiday is only 25 days a year. But he enjoys the work he does and the salary he gets.
Alex O’Hara is his friend and colleague. He is in sales. He is Export Sales Manager. At the office Alex writes business letters, looks through the mail, reads cables, talks business on the telephone. He also receives visitors, mostly clients. Sometimes Alex meets foreign businessmen and discusses with them prices for different goods, terms of payment, shipment and delivery. He also takes part in organizing trade fairs and exhibitions. Alex O’Hara finishes his work at 6 o’clock p.m. and goes home. He is always tired after work but he likes it and does it with pleasure.
Timberland is a world-famous company in the market for boots and shoes. It is a real market leader. At the moment it is rapidly increasing its exports to Japan, Taiwan and Hong-Kong. The goods of this company are of high quality. They meet up-to-date international standards.
Timberland is a large corporation. It has a lot of foreign and domestic subsidiaries. The company consists of nine departments.
Mr. Stevens is the company Sales Manager. His working day starts at 9 a.m. and finishes at 5 p.m. He works hard every day. Mr. Stevens always gets up early, takes a shower and has breakfast. During breakfast, he watches the latest news on TV or listens to the radio. Then Mr. Stevens drives to work. It takes him twenty five minutes to get to the office. When he starts his working day he usually switches on his computer and looks through the mail. After that he sends some e-mails or asks his secretary to do it. Then he and his assistant make the plan for the day. Mr. Stevens discusses a lot of business matters on the phone. Sometimes he makes appointments with his suppliers. At 12 o’clock he always has lunch in the company cafeteria. After lunch he meets his customers or regional sales managers.
It is 4 p.m. now and Mr. Stevens is having talks with Mr. Brown from the Public Relations Department (PR) and Advertising Department. They are discussing the new advertising campaign of their new product. Now they are speaking about the mass media and budget problems. They are hoping to find a reasonable solution to the issue.
Mr. Stevens is efficient and hard-working. He tries to solve all the problems, so his clients like to do business with him. They discuss terms of delivery and payment, prices and discounts. Mr. Stevens travels much and visits the subsidiaries of Timberland. He enjoys his job because he meets a lot of new people and goes to different countries.
Mr. Brown is a sales manager in a manufacturing business. The company «Farmco» produces high quality farming equipment. It meets up-to-date international standards and now the company is increasing the export of its goods to African countries.
«Farmco» consists of three departments: production department - its manager is in charge of production and service, finance department – its manager is responsible for finance and accounting and marketing and sales department. As a Sales manager Mr. Brown is in charge of selling and advertising.
Mr. Brown works hard and has a lot of things to do during his working day. He looks through the mail; plans and watches every step in the supply of his customers with the goods; employs salesmen, wholesalers and retailers to sell the goods. He sees that the system of distribution works efficiently and economically. Also during the day there are business matters which need his immediate attention. It takes Mr. Brown from two to three hours daily to discuss the questions of prices and discounts with his travelling salesmen. The company covers several countries. Mr. Brown chooses the method of distribution, the frequency of visits to customers, the method of travel by salesmen and solves many other issues.
Mr. Brown and two other managers regularly hold meetings to discuss the questions of general importance. Now they are having a meeting with the chief executive. The chief executive is explaining to the two other managers that the sales manager has authority to decide any question about the selling campaign, even some issues of manufacturing and financial sections. Clearly, the task of selling is very important for any organization and the responsibilities of a sales manager are heavy.
Mr. Spencer works for Maggate - a multinational company which manufactures more than 50.000 different products. Mr. Spencer is in the computer business. In fact he is responsible for European business. Maggate has had subsidiaries for almost 30 years and Mr. Spencer has helped to set up research and development centers in Europe. He has already been to many countries all over the world.
Last week Mr. Spencer flew to Germany to discuss business with German partners. Maggate has always spent a large part of its annual budget on the improvement of its products, and Mr. Spencer's mission in Germany was to exchange ideas and information concerning computer software. Mr. Spencer has succeeded in his mission. He and his German colleague Mr. Brown have known each other for a long time and during the talks they got down to business immediately. They didn’t waste time on formalities and ceremonies and managed to settle a lot of important items. The partners looked through the latest catalogues and closely studied the models on the market, they agreed on several changes in the planning of the new models. They accepted several new methods to increase their sales. They also made an appointment for October. Both parties were very pleased with the results of the meeting and are looking forward to seeing each other again.
Such meetings are important to the organization. Mr. Spencer has organized and attended a number of international meetings. He knows their organizers usually take into account a lot of factors. As a business traveller Mr. Spencer also knows that if you do business abroad, it’s useful to find out local customs before you start. Mistakes are often expensive. Mr. Spencer is a successful businessman. He has never made serious mistakes and has gained a lot of business experience.
Williams and Sons is a medium-sized British company which manufactures door hinges for the motor industry. The home market share of Williams and Sons is static but overseas trade has always been an attractive option. The company has a showroom and also has always promoted its products at trade fairs, exhibitions and seminars in the UK. They have had some contacts with overseas buyers and other foreign visitors.
Step by step they have decided through reading, talking and listening to other people that there are export possibilities for the company’s product. Several years ago the company decided to study the possibility of selling their product to the US market. First they closely examined several things: their product, human resources, and the prospects of gaining profit.
Then they did more detailed research. The owner of the company attended an international trade exhibition in the US. There he found out the offers of the competitors and met some potential customers. Finally, market research showed that sales opportunities were excellent. The Board of the directors was pleased with the results and decided to get down to business immediately. They made contacts by letter and telephone with possible agents when a crucial problem stopped the work. Their safety and quality tests, quite good for UK and European regulations, were not acceptable in the USA.
Their task was to rewrite test specifications, upgrade their test equipment and retrain personnel.
The results over the last five years have proven that the Board’s decision was correct. Orders from the USA have increased and the company is now considering the possibility of setting up its own manufacturing plant there. The company is also looking forward to other overseas markets.
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On Friday 11th August Paul Harding looked in his diary. He had an appointment at 11 o’clock with Mr. Rawson, the local manager of the General Company for Foreign Trade.
The GCFT was in the City. Its offices were on the fifth, sixth and seventh floors of a very tall building. The enquiry office was on the ground floor. Inside the company building the woman in the enquiry office telephoned Miss Wells, the manager’s secretary. She arrived and accompanied Paul to her room on the fifth floor. Miss Well had an office next to Mr. Rawson’s. As soon as her boss was free, she buzzed him on the intercom. Mr. Rawson immediately asked her to show Paul into the office.
RAWSON Ah! Mr. Harding. Come in, please. My name is Rawson.
HARDING How do you do?
RAWSON How do you do? Please sit down. Did you have a good trip?
HARDING Yes, thank you. Not at all bad.
RAWSON Good! Now this morning I want you to meet some of our heads of Department… Miss Wells, ask Mr. Jones to come in here, please.
WELL I’m afraid Mr. Jones is not available… Mr. Smith is not available either. But Mrs. Collier’s here.
RAWSON Good. Ask her to come in, please. When were you here last, Mr. Harding?
HARDING Oh! I was here about six months ago.
RAWSON Did you meet Mrs. Collier then?
HARDING No, I didn’t I’m afraid.
RAWSON Well, she’s my Personal Assistant. You will like her. She’s a very charming lady… Ah, Mrs. Collier.
COLLIER Please, don’t get up.
RAWSON I’d like to introduce you a colleague from America. Mrs. Collier, Mr. Harding.
HARDING How do you do?
COLLIER How do you do?